Sunday, October 30, 2011

Thanks Giving

After a dozen years here at PLANSPONSOR, effective November 1, I have joined the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) in Washington, D.C., as Director, Education and External Relations, and Co-Director of the EBRI Center for Research on Retirement Income.

I have long had a strong personal and professional admiration for the work that EBRI does in helping provide our industry with valuable and objective information and am thrilled to be able to be part of those efforts at this critical juncture.

It has been my great privilege over this past decade and change to share with you some of my thoughts and observations in this space. You have been generous both with your comments and commentary on those musings, as well as our publications overall.

While it’s not quite Thanksgiving, I thought I would dedicate this final “IMHO” to sharing some of the things for which I’m thankful:

I’m thankful that the vast majority of plan sponsors continued to support their workplace retirement programs with the same match and options as they had in previous years—and that so many of those who had to cut back in prior years still seem committed to restoring those original levels.

I’m thankful that participants, by and large, hung in there with their commitment to retirement savings, despite the lingering economic uncertainty. I’m especially thankful that many who saw their balances reduced by market volatility and, in some cases, a reduction in their employer match were willing and able to fill those gaps, in most cases by increasing their personal deferrals.

I’m thankful that most workers defaulted into retirement savings programs tend to remain there—and that there are mechanisms in place to help them save and invest better than they might otherwise.

I’m thankful for the time, cost, and effort employers expend each year on health-care coverage for their workforce—and continue to do so, despite the uncertainties still attendant with health-care legislation.


I’m thankful that those who regulate our industry continue to seek the input of those in the industry—and that that input continues to be shared broadly in open forums. I’m thankful that so many in our industry take the time to provide that input.

I’m thankful that so many employers have remained committed to their defined benefit plans and—often despite media reporting to the contrary—continue to make serious, consistent efforts to meet funding requirements that are quite different from when most initially decided to offer these programs.

I’m thankful that plan sponsors will soon have better access to more information about the expenses paid by their plans—and optimistic that it won’t be as bad as some fear. I’m thankful that we’re no longer talking about whether fees should be disclosed to participants and are now trying to figure out how to do it.

I’m thankful that the “plot” to kill the 401(k)…hasn’t…yet.

I’m thankful that we might—finally—be ready to have a national, adult conversation about retirement income and entitlement programs.

I’m thankful to have been given an opportunity to be part of something great here at PLANSPONSOR; to have seen a little internal e-mail publication called “NewsDash” come to reach—and touch—the lives of nearly 70,000 readers worldwide. I’m thankful to have been able, in some small way, to make a difference—and to have before me a marvelous opportunity to continue to do so.

I'm thankful for the warmth with which readers, both old and new, have embraced me and the work we do here. I'm thankful for all of you who have supported—and I hope benefited from—our various conferences, designation program, and communications throughout the years. I’m thankful for the constant—and enthusiastic—support of our advertisers throughout good times—and not-so-good times.

But most of all, I’m once again thankful for the unconditional love and patience of my family, the camaraderie of dear friends and colleagues, the opportunity to write and share these thoughts over the years—and for the ongoing support and appreciation of readers like you.

Thank you!

Nevin E. Adams, JD

My new email is nadams@ebri.org.

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Lessened, Learned?

When I’m talking to plan sponsors (and advisers) about the challenges of being an ERISA fiduciary, I’m generally inclined to emphasize the awesome responsibilities that come with the “assignment”: the impact exerted on participant retirement savings; the admonition to ensure that fees paid by, and services rendered to, the plan are reasonable; the implications of the prudent expert rule; and the liability (and personal liability, at that), not only for your own acts, but for the acts of your co-fiduciaries (and hence an urgency around knowing who those co-fiduciaries are). I’m inclined to talk about the limitations of ERISA 404(c) in providing a shield against all that potential liability.

I’ll remind them that the Labor Department considers them responsible for all participant-directed investments outside 404(c)’s provisions, and note how frequently participant directions tend to fall outside those provisions. I’ll tell them how important it is to read the plan document, and to make sure the plan is operated according to its terms. I will remind them that the power to appoint members to the plan committee has been found to extend fiduciary liability to those who do the appointing, and I will, from time to time, remind them that company stock has been called “the most dangerous plan investment,” in no small part because a group of 401(k) participants is a class-action litigant’s dream team.

And then we get a court decision like the 2nd Circuit’s recent holding in Gray v. Citigroup, Inc., and I wonder if I understand ERISA at all.

The Case

Gray is a “stock drop” case (see 2nd “Circuit Affirms Dismissal of Citigroup Stock Drop Charges”), brought on behalf of Citigroup participants whose 401(k) balances were invested in the stock of their employer, stock that dropped precipitously in value in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, in response to the collapse of the subprime mortgage market. As is common in such cases, the participant-plaintiffs alleged that the stock was retained as a plan investment option after it was no longer prudent to do so, and that those on, and who appointed, the plan investment committee were not only in a position to know that, but to know that well before the stock tumbled in value.

However, the 2nd Circuit noted—and supported—the determination of the lower court that “defendants had no discretion whatsoever to eliminate Citigroup stock as an investment option, and defendants were not acting as fiduciaries to the extent that they maintained Citigroup stock as an investment option.” Moreover, it noted—and supported the District Court’s determination that “even if defendants did have discretion to eliminate Citigroup stock, they were entitled to a presumption that investment in the stock, in accordance with the Plans’ terms, was prudent….”

Now, how is it that the plan’s committee had “no discretion whatsoever” to deal with the company stock investment? Quite simply, because the plan document called for that as an investment option.1 That’s right, apparently the court felt that the plan fiduciaries had no choice in deciding to keep that option in the plan and available because, to put it simply, “the plan document made them do it.”2

Presumption of Prudence

As for the alternative argument, the “presumption of prudence”? Well, it’s come up before in Moench v. Robertson, a 3rd Circuit decision not only cited here, but subsequently adopted by other courts. In Moench, the 3rd Circuit found that a plan sponsor that offered stock as an investment in an Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) was entitled to a presumption of prudence.3 Moench is an older case (1995), and from a time when suits based on employer stock investments were less prevalent than today.

More recently, such cases have become nearly as routine as a 100-point drop in the Dow, and the judicial system, honoring precedent, and what it has chosen to view as a Congressional endorsement for employer stock investment in these programs, has led a growing number of jurisdictions to summarily (if not peremptorily) dismiss many of these actions. Indeed, when all is said and done, it now seems as though the courts are comfortable imposing a less stringent review of the decision to invest in employer stock than in any other investment on the retirement plan menu.4

Moreover, for those that have, since Enron anyway, worried about the potentially conflicting duties owed by certain committee members to shareholders and plan participants, the 2nd Circuit provided a moment of unexpected “clarity,” resolving with a pen stroke a dilemma that has concerned plan fiduciaries for at least the past decade by declaring, “We also hold that defendants did not have an affirmative duty to disclose to plan participants non-public information regarding the expected performance of Citigroup stock….”

Ironically, it was this very 2nd Circuit that, just a few years ago, called to mind the notion that ERISA’s fiduciary standards of conduct are “the highest known to the law.”

Perhaps they still are, but, IMHO, this decision serves only to lessen that standard.

—Nevin E. Adams, JD

Footnotes:

1 More specifically, the 2nd Circuit noted that “[a] person is only subject to these fiduciary duties ‘to the extent’ that the person, among other things, ‘exercises any discretionary authority or discretionary control respecting management of such plan’ or ‘has any discretionary authority or discretionary responsibility in the administration of such plan.’” And then it went on to decide that the plan fiduciary’s obligation to honor the terms of the plan document effectively displaced that discretionary authority.

2 “When, as here, plan documents define an EIAP as ‘comprised of shares of” employer stock, and authorize the holding of ‘cash and short-term investments’ only to facilitate the ‘orderly purchase’ of more company stock, the fiduciary is given little discretion to alter the composition of investments.”

3 More than a year ago, I noted that “in effect, this ‘presumption of prudence’ seems to have become a magic talisman against which no claim of malfeasance can be successfully alleged, much less established, simply because the courts have discovered (a cynic might say created) a presumption that holding employer stock is appropriate.” (see “IMHO: Prudent Mien?”).

4 One needn’t read between the lines here. In the court’s own words, “We reject plaintiffs’ argument—endorsed by the dissent—that we should analyze the decision to offer the Stock Fund as we would a fiduciary’s decision to offer any other investment option. We agree with the Sixth and Ninth Circuits that were it otherwise, fiduciaries would be equally vulnerable to suit either for not selling if they adhered to the plan’s terms and the company stock decreased in value, or for deviating from the plan by selling if the stock later increased in value.” (In the court’s defense, plan sponsors have, in fact, been sued for selling stock that later increased in value in a couple of rare situations.)

The 2nd Circuit’s decision is available HERE.

You might also find the amicus brief filed by the Department of Labor instructive HERE:

Sunday, October 16, 2011

IMHO: Catching Your Drift

I recently found myself driving in an unfamiliar city without the aid of a GPS (global positioning system).

Sadly, I had become so accustomed to having that device available, I hadn’t even taken the time to print out instructions from any of the usual Internet sources, and while there were maps in the vehicle, none were of the area in question. That didn’t matter, I told myself—because I had made that drive before, had a pretty good idea of where I needed to be and, armed with a pretty reliable memory for such things, I set out with only a little trepidation.

Just about the time I was getting pretty confident in my ability to navigate without all the high-tech “crutches,” I was thrown a series of curves. The primary route was closed due to construction, the rerouting didn’t seem to take into account where I was trying to get to, an unexpected one-way street suddenly emerged going the “wrong” way, and then I found myself directed onto a parkway whose designers had apparently never contemplated the need of a misdirected driver to pull off and turn around.


In just a matter of minutes, I went from coasting along cool and confident to a state of growing concern (it felt suspiciously like panic) as I began to be drawn what I was sure was miles off my designed course, and heading further away all the time.

Then I remembered that I DID have a GPS on my phone. One that, admittedly, lacked the calm, reassuring voice of the more traditional version giving me step-by-step directions, but it was something. However, it wasn’t the ability of the device to offer routing instructions that I found most useful—the screen was too small (and my need to watch traffic too great) to do much with that feature.

The feature that saved me that day was the blue dot—that element of the GPS that, with a simple touch, will show where you are. That information, presented on the map of my surroundings, allowed me to not only find where I was, but to then visualize where I needed to be and begin heading in that direction. Oh, I missed a turn or two after that, but thanks to that locator “dot,” I quickly saw when I made those mistakes and was able to remedy them before going miles out of my way.

Most participants don’t set out on their retirement savings journey with a confident sense that they know where they are going, much less any real sense of how to get there. Nonetheless, by the time they sit through an education session (or two), make their way through the attendant materials, and try to complete the requisite enrollment forms, they may well feel that they are heading in the right direction.

And then, something happens—it doesn’t have to be an “event” like the financial crisis of 2008 (though it can be); sometimes it’s as simple as just not having had the time to pay attention to your account while the market decides to go on a losing (or winning) streak, or it can simply be a result of the preoccupations that come with those ordinary, but often unplanned, changes in your daily (and financial) life. It can be any of a series of things that pop up just about the time you think you have nothing but smooth sailing ahead; the things that crop up to suddenly “close for construction” the path you had thought you’d be able to follow for a long and uneventful journey.

At times like that—and, arguably, at any time—it’s important for participants—and plan sponsors—to have some kind of idea not only of where they want to be, but where they are relative to that destination.

Because, after all, it’s a lot easier to stay—and get back—on track the sooner you find out you’ve begun to drift from it.

—Nevin E. Adams, JD .

Sunday, October 09, 2011

The IKEA “Experience”

We spent some time this past weekend getting my eldest daughter squared away in her new apartment. It’s her first, and as with nearly all first apartments, there is a lot you need to get that you never needed in your room at home or in your dorm away at college. So we headed out to IKEA.

Those who have never had occasion to visit an IKEA store should check it out at least once. They are mammoth stores—big on the outside and seemingly even more massive on the inside. It’s the kind of store you can easily get lost in (not to worry, they have their own food court inside), and yet it’s very hard to simply get from point A to point B, even if you know what you want to buy. About the only way to get through the store is to wander along the winding path the IKEA folks have constructed that takes you—literally—through every display imaginable.1

But the really interesting thing about the IKEA shopping process is that you not only have to find what you want, you must write down the part number(s), and—at the end of your journey through this mammoth store—you must assemble the requisite pieces/boxes in the warehouse.2 You not only have to make sure that you have each of your purchases, you frequently have to make sure that you have all the (separate) boxes into which your purchase has been divided. Ironically, the consummation of that IKEA shopping experience is that you get to go home and put your purchases together.


Now, I’ve never met anyone who didn’t like the IKEA “experience.” Oh, some might not care for the quality of the furniture, or the selection—and surely I’m not the only one who wonders why I have to do all the work (I understand that it’s supposed to be cheaper, but I haven’t found it to be cheap). But it’s not for those in a hurry, and at the end of the night, I kept feeling like I should be able to present someone else with the bill!

As I was loading up the family van with our purchases, I wondered if this is how participants feel about the current structure of our voluntary savings system: one (still) fraught with a mind-numbing array of choices that have to be assembled at the point of enrollment by participants who want to do the right thing(s), but who find themselves stuck trying to follow an instruction manual they don’t quite understand, surrounded by people who seem to get it (but probably don’t, either), only to find themselves at the checkout counter wondering if they do, in fact, have everything they need—only to then have to go home and put it together themselves.

And I wonder if, when they tally up that bill, they too will observe that it’s probably supposed to be cheaper that way—but find that it’s not exactly cheap.

—Nevin E. Adams, JD

1 This turns out to be an interesting way to create the kind of “impulse” purchasing that most retail stores only have positioned at the checkout counter, as one continually wanders past interesting things that you hadn’t even thought you needed. On the other hand, the maps posted along the way that purport to show you where you are were not exactly reassuring to those in a hurry.

2 A place reminiscent of that last scene in “Raiders of the Lost Ark” (albeit with numbered shelves and aisles).

Sunday, October 02, 2011

“Nigh” Five

A few weeks back, I offered some notions about what the next five years will bring in terms of industry trends (see “IMHO: Fifth ‘Avenues’”). However, in preparing for our recent PLANADVISER National Conference, I came up with five more.

Everybody isn’t going to do automatic enrollment.

Without question, automatic enrollment has done much to shore up the retirement savings rates of American workers. For plan sponsors and participants alike, the efficacy of an approach that doesn’t require participants to complete an enrollment form, deliberate over investment choices, set upon a desired rate of savings, or even darken the door of an education meeting has done much to get tens of thousands of workers off on the right retirement savings foot. And, for the vast majority of workers, the ability to do the right thing without doing anything at all has not only been well-received, but much appreciated as well.

Not that automatic enrollment as outlined by the Pension Protection Act (PPA) doesn’t have its shortcomings. Arguably, the 3% starting deferral rate outlined in the PPA—and still adopted by the vast majority of plans—is better suited to avoid creating a financial burden on workers than to ensuring an adequate level of retirement savings; and some workers, in taking the “easy” path cleared by automatic enrollment, wind up saving at lower rates than they would likely choose for themselves had they only taken the time to actually fill out an enrollment form (see “IMHO: ‘Starting’ Points”).

But at some level, automatic enrollment requires that the plan sponsor “impose” a savings decision on a participant, and even though workers can choose to opt out, many plan sponsors are simply disinclined to set aside the purely voluntary approach. Many smaller programs that might once have been willing to go down that route as a means of avoiding trouble with the nondiscrimination tests have since found the solace required in adopting a safe harbor design. But for many, perhaps most these days, it’s all about economics; simply said, the more participants, the more matching dollars—and considering the potential number of additional participants, those matching dollars could be significant, or significant “enough” in the current economic environment.

PLANSPONSOR’s annual Defined Contribution Survey has, for the past several years, shown a flat or flattening adoption rate for automatic enrollment. There’s no reason to think this will change in the short term.

Everybody who does automatic enrollment isn’t going to do it for everybody.

Among the PPA’s provisions is a safe harbor for those adopting automatic enrolment—a safe harbor that effectively provides plan sponsors with protection identical to that afforded under ERISA 404(c ), so long as certain conditions are met. Among those conditions is that all eligible participants be automatically enrolled and/or given the chance to opt out.

And yet, PLANSPONSOR’s annual Defined Contribution Survey has found, for several years running, that two-thirds of plan sponsors that have embraced automatic enrollment have done so only for newer hires (see “IMHO: A Prospective Perspective”). Anecdotally, plan sponsors are reluctant to “disturb” workers who, at least in theory, have previously been afforded the opportunity to participate and decided not to. Some are hesitant to “insult their intelligence” by doing so, and for others, it’s just the economic dilemma posed above. The PPA doesn’t mandate going back to older workers, of course—but plan sponsors desirous of those safe harbor protections either have to, or have to be able to establish that they have. There is also, of course, the issue of a plan design that, at least on the surface, is more attentive to the financial security of shorter-tenured workers.

Still, the current—and apparently persistent trend—is to adopt this feature prospectively, and it will likely take an improved economy—or perhaps litigation—to change that dynamic.

Roth 401(k)s are going to continue to gain ground.


The advantages of tax-deferred savings have long been part-and-parcel of the pitch behind 401(k) plans. The notion is simple: defer paying taxes on your savings now, and they’ll add up faster, further fueled by the tax-deferred accumulation of earnings on those balances. And then, the logic goes, you pay taxes on those monies as you withdraw them—years from now—and at rates that, post-retirement, will be lower.

Plan sponsors have long been reluctant to push Roth 401(k)s; their pay-it-now concept on taxes at odds with the traditional tax deferral mantra, and their benefits often seen as skewed toward more highly compensated workers.

However, these days, it’s hard to find someone willing to predict lower taxes in the future, even post-retirement. Moreover, today’s younger (and not-so-highly compensated) workers may very well be paying the lowest tax rates they will ever experience.

To date, most surveys indicate that the participant take-up rate on Roth 401(k)s remains modest, something on the order of what self-directed brokerage accounts have garnered (and in many cases, appealing to the same audience). However, the preliminary results of PLANSPONSOR’s annual Defined Contribution Survey suggest that Roth 401(k)s are cropping up on a surprising number of plan menus. It’s a trend that, IMHO, bears watching.

Plan sponsors will (continue to) measure plan success on things (they think) they can control.

Plan sponsors have long measured the success of their defined contribution plans by the rate of participation in the plan. More than just providing a sense of interest and/or the success of inspiring enrollment meetings, the rate of participation, certainly by non-highly compensated workers, has a significant impact on the plan’s ability not only to pass nondiscrimination tests, but to allow highly compensated workers to defer at meaningful rates. However, in an era of automatic enrollment and safe harbor plan designs, the value of this metric has been muted or, in many cases, eliminated.

There is, however, a growing discussion among providers that plan sponsors should begin—and in some cases, are beginning—to consider other metrics: things like rates of deferral, diversity of asset allocation, and even adequacy of retirement income. That they are now able to consider such a shift in focus is a testament to a new and exciting generation of tools now available from the provider community, and they may well foreshadow a time in the not-too-distant future where those perspectives are shared with participants who may, for example, increase their current rate of deferral to ensure a higher level of retirement income, or adjust their asset allocation to preserve portfolio gains as they near retirement.

However, it’s not clear to me that plan sponsors will choose to benchmark their plans on criteria that is so individualized and so far outside their control to influence. Consider that about two-thirds of plan sponsors today still benchmark based on participation, and half that number examine deferral rates within various employee groups. These measures may not provide a picture of what the plan will yield in terms of its ultimate goal, but they are indicative of things a plan sponsor can control or influence with plan design, and—for the foreseeable future, anyway—I’m guessing they will continue to be the measures of choice.

Plan sponsors want good retirement outcomes for participants—but don’t feel it is their responsibility to ensure them.

Under the auspices of “best practices” and armed with some of the aforementioned benchmarking measures, some claim that fulfilling the plan fiduciary’s responsibility to act in the interests of plan participants extends to ensuring a good result. Of course, some plan sponsors are reluctant to know the results of that benchmarking for just that reason: that, once apprised of those results, they will one day be held to account for them.

Unlikely as that seems to me, one should never underestimate the creativity of the plaintiff’s bar. The reality is that a voluntary savings system needs goals, and I think participants would save better if they understood more. It also seems to me that plan sponsors who know more about what is going on in their plan might do a better job as well.

—Nevin E. Adams, JD